Problems of dating human bones from the Iron Gates

Experimental evidence for the relationship of the carbon isotope ratios of whole diet and dietary protein to those of bone collagen and carbonate, in Lambert, J. Change of diet of the Greenland Vikings determined from stable carbon isotope analysis and l4C dating of their bones, Radiocarbon 41 2: The Mesolithic in Europe. Papers presented at the Third International Symposium, Edinburgh Mesolithic and Early Neolithic in the Iron Gates: Thoughts on the chronological relations between the Epi-Palaeolithic and the Neolithic of the low Danube, in Bonsall ed. Les enterrements de Schela Gladovei:

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The digging up at this mountainous site of traces of human activity dating back 1. According to current theories, the Europeans’ prehistoric ancestors came into southern Europe from Africa by crossing the Strait of Gibraltar or the Sicilian channel around , years ago. Thus prehistoric man, driven by natural curiosity and the search for a milder climate and a better food supply, might have entered Europe through Bulgaria, said Jean-Claude Leblanc of the University of Toulouse.

Current hypotheses were drawn up “in the 20th century in western Europe based on the rich archeological material found there,” Bulgarian Academy of Sciences researcher Nikolay Sirakov said. But the data came from only part of the European land mass and “were considered valid for the whole of it,” Sirakov said.

Radiocarbon dating results on bones need not be subjected to an age offset but bone samples have time-width. Literature suggests that a bone does not cease to assimilate carbon from the biosphere until death; there is a turnover time of about 30 years for human bone and a shorter period for animal bone.

The results of the paired 14C and stable isotope measurements provide evidence of substantial dietary change over the period from about BP to about BP. The data from the Early Mesolithic to the Chalcolithic are consistent with a 2-component dietary system, where the linear plot of isotopic values reflects mixing between the 2 end-members to differing degrees.

Contrary to our earlier suggestion, there is no evidence of a substantial population that had a transitional diet midway between those that were characteristic of the Mesolithic and Neolithic. Provisionally, these are interpreted either as incomers who originated in early farming communities outside the Iron Gates region or as indigenous individuals representing the earliest Neolithic of the Iron Gates. The results from Roman and Medieval age burials show a deviation from the linear function, suggesting the presence of a new major dietary component containing isotopically heavier carbon.

This is interpreted as a consequence of the introduction of millet into the human food chain.

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While there are some cemeteries that are world renowned, there are hidden gems around the world that are just as fascinating, even if they are lesser known. TalkDeath on November 4, A growing number of people are making cemeteries their go-to destination when visiting a new city or country. In fact, cemeteries were once designed for public enjoyment, including family picnics, bird watching, and quiet inward religious contemplation. Today, the South Bank has a much different reputation, home to office buildings, ritzy bars, and the famous Tate Modern Museum.

But looking further back into this neighbourhood’s past, we see a much different side of Southwark history. In a small lot at the corner of Redcross Way, rusted iron gates surround the seemingly forgotten and often overlooked Cross Bones Graveyard.

It is widely recognised that when marine resources form a significant proportion of the human diet, this results in radiocarbon ages for human remains that are significantly older than the contemporary atmosphere. While there has been widespread assessment of marine 14 C reservoir ages, there has been litle study of the freshwater equivalent.

The results of our combined studies suggest wood processing and hunting as the main activities performed with these tools, together with substantial fishing activities suggested by the presence of a FRE in the 14 C dates. Our findings provide no evidence to support previous suggestions of plant cultivation during the Mesolithic at Icoana. Four categories of raw materials were identified: All raw materials could have been obtained locally, suggesting their direct acquisition and processing by the Mesolithic community.

The typological range is limited, but comprises well-defined tool series. The most representative were antler chisels, bone points and tusk side-scrapers. While the projectile points are indicative of hunting activities, the other items suggest domestic uses cutting and shaving wood, perforating and cleaning hides, etc. An important observation concerns raw material differentiation of the blanks: Analysis of the hard animal materials from Ostrovul Banului indicates a community that was highly specialized both economically and technologically.

The inventory fits the general pattern of Mesolithic assemblages from the Iron Gates.

Problems of dating human bones from the Iron Gates

Axes and Swords for Beheading Beheading was a form of execution rather than a form of torture, but it could form part of a programme of torture. For example beheading was a part of the process of drawing, hanging, and quartering. Decapitation has been used as a form of capital punishment for millennia. The terms “capital offence”, “capital crime”, “capital punishment,” derive from the word caput, Latin for “head”, referring to the punishment for serious offences involving the forfeiture of the head.

Decapitation by sword or axe was considered the “honourable” way to die for a noble, who, being a warrior, could often expect to die by the sword in any event.

This article presents 37 new AMS dates on human bone from five sites in the Iron Gates, together with the corresponding δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. They include the first dates on human bone from two sites, Icoana and Velesnica.

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A freshwater diet-derived C-14 reservoir effect at the Stone Age sites in the Iron Gates gorge

Iqbal Sacranie, secretary general of the Muslim Council of Britain, urged the prime minister to use his influence to “avert the destruction of an important Muslim country” and warned of deep cynicism among British Muslims about the motives for the war on terror. In a letter to No 10, Mr Sacranie described the plans for war as a “colonial policy”. A war would worsen relations between communities and faiths in Britain as well as causing “lasting damage” to relations between the Muslim world and the west, Mr Sacranie added.

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Ancient Europe The Iron Gates region stands out for its exceptional record of human occupation during the Late Glacial and Early Holocene periods and for the unique insight it provides into the events surrounding the transition to agriculture in the Middle Danube basin. Here, along a kilometer stretch of the river Danube that forms the border between Romania and Serbia, settlements of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers have been found at more than thirty locations.

The distribution of the sites is very much a reflection of the pattern of research. Surveys and rescue excavations undertaken in the s to s prior to construction of two dams across the Danube targeted valley floor areas on both sides of the river that would eventually be flooded. Very little archaeological exploration has taken place in areas farther from the river.

The majority of the known sites occur in the zone where the Danube has cut a series of deep gorges through the southern arm of the Carpathian Mountains.

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Most people think agriculture started about 7, years ago in the Fertile Crescent of what is now Iraq and really took hold in Egypt a few thousand years later. Several thousand years passed between the days when cavemen became gatherers as well as hunters and when huge farming projects followed the irrigation in Mesopotamia around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and when the Nile inundated Africa.

The exact process is subject to interpretation due to a lack of written history, but farming on a large scale is a lot older than the Pyramids built around 3, B.

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Photo c Katy Nicholls At the turn of the millennium, local artist-photographer Zanna Wilford led a campaign against a proposed development on the site. Over the next decade, John Constable contacted the site owners Transport for London TfL , The Mayor of London and other interested parties to seek a consensus for the future of Crossbones. In , Valerie Shawcross asked an important question in the London Assembly: As a sign of good faith, TfL arranged for the gates, which had been transformed into a shrine, to be sensitively relocated from the land scheduled for development to the protected graveyard area.

In order not to disturb any of the human remains, the garden was designed with raised beds and fresh soil brought in. Our first act in creating the new garden was to rebury any bones found exposed in rubble from previous desecrations of the graveyard.

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They found a significant association between the condition and sensorineural hearing loss – which was present in 1. And conductive hearing loss was present in 3. A new US study of more than , people found a link between iron deficiency anaemia and hearing loss Study author Kathleen Schieffer said: Tests showed the mineral rapidly causes DNA damage in blood vessels. While they were carried out in a lab setting, rather than living people, scientists found the levels of iron given in supplements may be too high and harmful.

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